A systematic review of the concept and clinical applications of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in Orthopaedics

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [1] are believed to have multipotent plasticity with the capability to differentiate along multiple cell lineages such as cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle and nerve [1–6]. Such multipotency has the potential to play an important role in the repair and reconstruction of multiple tissues across a number of orthopaedic specialties. Bone marrow and fat are the most abundant and accessible source of MSCs with bone marrow aspirate the most commonly being reported to stimulate healing.

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